Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments (Roerich Pact). Washington, 15 april 1935.
Provision was made for the special protection of cultural property in earlier treaties, particularly in Article 27 of the Hague Regulations of 1899 and 1907 and Article 5 of the Hague Convention (IX) concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War of 1907. These provisions make it the duty of the inhabitants to indicate cultural property by distinctive signs. Further provisions were included in the Hague Rules of Air Warfare of 1922/23, especially in Articles 25 and 26.
Following a suggestion made by Professor Nicholas Roerich,